bardi grub life cycle
Hassell. Trove. The mako living in tree-trunks are chopped out by the men.’ (Tindale & Lindsay 1963: 56). 1843 Letter No. It is also known as rain moth, bardee, bardy, bardi grub or waikerie and is found in the southern half of Australia. Read 14th February, Oceania; Australia Chapters 27 & 28. http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/insectsasfood/files/2012/09/Book_Chapter_27.pdf http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/insectsasfood/files/2012/09/Book_Chapter_28.pdf. Bussell, A.J. In indigenous taxonomy edible woodborers sometimes take the name from, or give it to, their host habitat. 2. Indigenous mythologies most of which were not recorded by the white settlers owing to them being considered too incredulous (Grey 1841 acknowledges this) contained cultural metaphors, moral messages and deeply encoded ecological and animal, plant and bird phenological information. During these cyclic events there was intense competition between birds, humans and animals for the limited food resources – all preparing for the long cold dark wet season. It is difficult to ascertain from the early ethno-historical records which stem-boring and root-feeding larvae these terms refer to. These grubs have a fragrant aromatic flavour, and form a favorite article of food amongst the natives. The Rain Moth Caterpillar: The Bardi Grub. found under the bark and wood of marri (and various other Eucalpyts). Â You should give them a try. This theory seemed logical to us at the time. ; Witchetty grubs … This included the young of most species that were highly favoured in the diet. The bardi was then carefully extracted. Better than beef they reckoned.’ (Greg Garlett, Nyungar Elder 2000) Plate 1: Big fat juicy barde (cockchafers) from … We have searched high and low to find a photo of the Bardistus cibarius larva to help shed light on its enigmatic identity but we could not find a single named image of this particular beetle larva. The anthropogenic firing of the country played an important part in the long-term management of this food resource by stimulating seed germination and regenerating new growth as a future medium for larvae-farming purposes. It would seem that no larval specimen was provided to Newman as he provides no taxonomical larval description. Imbat was imparting his cultural wisdom by telling Grey that without fat on his body, he would not be considered “handsome” and would not survive the coming winter, let alone his journey back to Perth. Moore (1834) in his journal describes a similar type of grub found under the bark of the red gum. Sunday Times 1928 ‘The Yellow Box Borer’ Life and Lore in the Bush, 1 July 1928, page 10. Bradshaw (1857: 99), referring to the Nyungar people of the Swan River area, notes that: ‘there are also three kinds of grubs that the natives are fond of and which sometimes they cook, but oftener eat raw. The grub is a sort of long four-sided white worm or maggot, with a thick flat square head and a small pair of strong brown forceps set on the end of the head’ (Moore 1834 in Cameron 2007:317). . BioRisk 4(1): 193–218. The method of paluk (or barde) farming involved a traditional scientific knowledge (TSK) of plant and insect phenology that had developed over many thousands of years of empirical observation and practical experience. The old people knew when to find them. We do not understand why Grey chose this particular longhorn beetle to be the barde type specimen, especially when barde grubs from the Xanthorrhoea (grass tree) and Acacia (wattle) would have included a variety of beetle and moth larvae as the Xanthorrhoea relies on insect-pollinators. A male Nyungar Elder from the Perth area described to us how ‘the old people’ used to collect bardi from the wattle tree. Monell Chemical Senses Center, Pennsylvania. There are a few short hairs at the rounded tip of the elytra.’ (White in Grey 1841: 465). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press at the Miegunyah Press. where is your fat? Dictionary of the Dordenup Language. This is a possibility, for African women located edible beetle larvae by holding their ears close to tree trunks and using subtle auditory indicators, such as the “nibbling” sounds of the grubs, were able to locate “the most sought-after instar (the developmental stage of an insect or larvae).” (Van Huis et al 2013:11). Roth (1901) writes, referring to Austin’s first hand experience in south-western Australia, that the Nyungar people of the Bunbury/ Australind area ate grubs from the grasstree and black wattle and knew where to find them by the degree of decay in the wood. The adult moth has a wingspan of up to 16cms. And maybe they are right. In 1935 the entomologist at the WA identified ‘the larvae of the large bardi moth’ as. This is not too different from Hassell’s barit (for “b” and “p” sounds in Nyungar language are considered interchangeable when rendered into written form). The earliest name for the edible grubs found in decaying Xanthorrhoea or grass trees is paaluck recorded by Isaac Scott Nind, the resident medical surgeon at King George Sound between 1826-1828. Victoria Park, WA: Hesperian Press. The Witchetty Grub is the larvae of the cossid moth (Endoxyla leucomochla). The Witchetty grub is the larval stage (caterpillar) of a large cossid wood moth, Endoxyla leucomochla, and was called ‘witjuri’ by the Adnyamathanha people of South Australia’s Central Desert. 4. His wordlist and journals soon after publication became highly popular throughout Australia and were influential in shaping perceptions of indigenous life and terminology. Communal kangaroo drives and battues were conducted in late spring at a time when the young were being de-pouched from their mothers. found under the thin bark of diseased or drought-affected wando (or wandoo). Hi, my name is: White Curl Grub (cockchafer in the southern states) Describe yourself: Well, I’m white and, as my name suggests, kinda curly (more C shaped to be precise) with three pairs of legs during my destructive juvenile stage. 15. After the first rains. These stores were replenished during times of plenty (Neel 1962). There is no doubt in our minds that the term bardi originates from the Nyungar language, having first appeared in print in 1836 as bader in Bunbury’s journal. Macquarie Aboriginal Words. Birds’ eggs and young nestlings were hunted during maungerman and mondyianong (spring) when they were full of nutritious fats. Some or all of these cerambycid, buprestid and cockchafer larvae may be bardi, if the term is applied generally. Rae,W. Edited by D.S. ‘Often three or even four years would pass before the child was fully weaned but in the second year large witjuti grubs, with their rich store of buttery fat and tasty soft meat would be given to it’ (Tindale and Lindsay 1963: 109), The drawings of Aboriginal people of Central Australia often involve circular or spiral designs known as kuri kuri often signifying the ‘home’ of a particular animal or plant. Yet, when hungry a friend will not scruple to have recourse to the grass-tree of another who is not present; but in this case he peels a small branch or twig, and sticks it in the ground, near the tree. Cowan (1865) refers to the consumption of marrow-like grubs but it is unclear whether he is referring to their fat-rich taste or something else. 3. 1976 The Aboriginal languages of the South-West of Australia. Linguistic dictionaries and scholarly sources provide contradictory interpretations of the meaning of the term bardi (also rendered in ethno-historical sources as bardie, bardee, bardy, bader, bada, berda, paarde-paattt, barit, bert, and burrtt).1 Some say it is the larva of a longhorn beetle known as Bardistus cibarius belonging to the Cerambycidae family; others attribute it to the cockchafer larva of a scarab beetle (Scarabaeidae family); others to the larva of a buprestid jewel beetle from the Buprestidae family and others include as bardi the caterpillar larvae of moths, such as the hepialid rain moth Trictena atripalpis.2 The Buprestidae, Scarabaidae and Cerambycidae (all of which belong to the Order Coleoptera) represent three different Linnaean families of beetle, and some or all of these larvae found in southwestern Australia may be bardi. 2014 ‘The importance of recording local knowledge about edible insects in Oceania with particular reference to Australia.’ In P. Durst and N. Bayasgalanbat (eds.) 2nd Edition. Bugs and insects have an essential role in the circle of life. European Wasp â They can become very aggressive, especially when their nest is disturbed. In cool temperate zones the cerambycid life cycle may last from two to three years, most of that time spent in the larval stage inside the host plant. 2nd edition. Forward by C.P. Beagle in the years 1837-43.Vol 1. 1930 Early days in Western Australia, being the letters and Journal of Lieut. East Fremantle: C.W. Drummond, J. 2,827 species of crickets and grasshoppers, 20,816 species of butterflies and moths and, The Identification of Caterpillars of Australia, Weird Australian Insects – Silver Orb Spider. Government of South Australia: Primary Industries and Resources. The genus is of very slow growth, the largest specimens must be several hundred years old: these furnish the natives with a favourite article of food in the larvae of a large brown species of Cerambyx.’. So what is this bardi? Philadelphia: Lippencott, pp. Aboriginal women and children … Bardi collecting in this manner was still occurring in the 1930’s in the Kendenup area as reported in the Western Mail: ‘I have not seen the natives securing bardies from roots but have watched them getting them from the limbs of bushes and trees. When the skin became taut with the warmed juices within it, he raked it out, flicked it with his fingers to remove the adhering dust and offered it to me. When Nyungar Elders were asked about the collection of (what they called) bardi one senior spokeswoman told us that when it was bardi– collecting time there were indicators in the surrounding vegetation and roots of nearby trees. Moore (1841) describes it as a chestnut flavour. The term, In traditional Nyungar nomenclature animal and plant names were codified by means of “descriptors,” which described aspects such as unusual or unique physical characteristics, habitat, life cycle stage, sex of the animal (e.g. The Nyungar like all other Australian Aboriginal groups had a great knowledge of plant and animal phenological breeding cycles to the point where seasonally reliable resources were managed or “farmed” to mitigate against catastrophic food stress. Grey’s (1841:289) comments, together with those of Nind (1831), confirm that by breaking off the tops of selected Xanthorrhoea the Nyungar were able to accelerate the decay of the plant and create a raising medium for the cultivation of wild insect larvae. Nature does not work that way. 1930 ‘Early Days in Western Australia.’ London: Oxford University Press. Hammond, J.E. Wilson of an Excursion up the Canning River, October 1829’ in J. Shoobert (ed.) ; The most common type of witchetty grub is the larvae of the Cossid Moth. Moore (1842: 78) defines wulgang as: ‘A grub found in the Xanthorrhoea or grass tree, distinguished from the bardi by being much larger, and found only one or two in a tree, whereas the bardi are found by hundreds.’, He suggests that edible grubs were distinguished by size – the bardi referring to the smaller, more numerous and gregarious larvae-feeders found in grass trees and wool-gang being a larger more solitary larva. They are about an inch long, and sometimes fifty or a hundred are found boring their way through one grass-tree.’, ‘Grubs, which are extremely palatable, are procured from the grass tree; and likewise in an excrescence of the wattle tree. His polite offer being courteously declined, he snapped them up, one by one, smacking his lips, to show us that what we had refused was esteemed, by him, as a “bonne bouche.” 4 (Wilson 1829 in Shoobert 2005: 93). Grey was being fed barde during the season known as djeran the duration of which varied but was approximately from late March to late May/ early June, depending on weather patterns and flora, fauna and avifauna life cycles. Hunger is another factor in this equation that we should not overlook. (Cerambycidae). From that time onwards the term paaluc and its variants paluk or baluk (Grey 1840: 5, 112), ballak (Moore 1842), bullouock or barlock (A.Y. We do not understand why Drummond (1843) did not acknowledge the Nyungar name for these larvae or make reference to the newly recorded Linnaean name Bardistus cibarius for by the time of his writing Grey’s (1840, 1841) wordlists and published journals would have been well read and discussed by the colonial literati. ‘…the guide for the official common names of Australian insects (Naumann 1993) lists three taxa of insects as, ‘One of them, who appeared to be superior to the others, both in rank and intelligence, shewed us various roots which they used for food, and also the manner of digging for them; and, in return for our civility, in giving him and his friends a little biscuit, he procured a handful of loathsome-looking grubs from a grass-tree, and offered them to us, after having himself ate two or three, to show us that they were used by them as food. The tastes associated with the consumption of bardi seem to emphasize its nut-like flavour. The grub would be taken up in the fingers off the coals, the fleshy part nipped off with the teeth and the head thrown away. To us, they all look the same. This was the time for maximizing subcutaneous body fat to ensure survival through the long cold wet season when food resources were limited and less easily procured due to the adverse weather conditions. Vols 1 & 11. Men would often consume grubs opportunistically while out hunting for larger game, such as possum or kangaroo, as noted by Grey (1841) and Hammond (1933:40-41) who states: ‘As he walked along, with his eyes alert, the native could tell, too, which trees had opossums in them and which trees or blackboys would have grubs. (Cossidae). Macquarie Aboriginal Words. Cameron, J.M.R. Other terms for edible grubs (some of which we have attempted to translate) are bejenup, boodjark, boo-yit, changut, bunark, iular, kurrang, marnduk, marign, marnung, mairl, mutarnuck, nargagli, paaluck, palger, wandona and woolgang. Moore’s six-season model is oversimplified, Western-centric and ethnographically inaccurate. 1847 The Bushman or Life in a New Country. 1508-1808 [incl. First Edition. But have you ever wondered what a bardi grub is? Hope, F.W. Witchetty grubs are called witjuri by the indigenous people of Australia. However, Nyungar people prized the bardi for its nutritional fat content. As a result it might be applied to an area where good food was plentiful.’. From our understanding, it would seem that what Grey has done in a genuine attempt to be scientifically accurate is to take a Nyungar term that probably denoted a generalised category of edible insect larvae and have it identified by the prominent British taxonomist to a single Linnaean species. The larva eats into the woody roots of the Witchetty bush, Acacia kempeana, and feeds on the root sap. 3. Some ethno-historical accounts provide fleeting references to the opportunistic consumption of grubs to appease hunger, and sometimes, as noted by Collet Barker (1830) as a survival food found in the grass tree. Bates (in White 1985: 260), who seems to have copied from Grey’s work, writes: ‘If the top of the blackboy looks somewhat withered it contains some grubs, and with a few kicks the tree falls over, the grubs being found at its root (sic.) The grub grows to about 7cm in size. Nyungar people ate the larvae of a range of beetles and moths, including that of the rain moth (Trictena atripalpis). During one of our field surveys in the Moora area (north of Perth) in the 1990’s a Nyungar woman announced to us that her grandmother told her that the ‘old people’ could hear the bardi “sing” in the wattle when it was ready for eating. Earlier in our paper we suggested that nargagli – a descriptor name for edible grubs found in the grass tree – may translate as meaning ‘strong, powerful to eat.’ Using the same cultural logic we would speculate that the edible grubs referred to as barit, pari, burrtt, bert (and their variant renditions) may derive from the Nyungar term baring which according to Curr (1886) means “fat.”. Grey (1841: 93) documents an anecdote that gives us a further clue as to when barde were in season. This adds another level of meaning to the term kurrang that refers to the edible grub found in wattle and ecological indicators of its presence, such as excrescences or frass (residue) and how it is extracted from its hole or tunnel under the ground or in the tree trunk. Victoria Park: Hesperian Press. They belong to the … Macquarie University, N.S.W: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. Sreedevi, K. and A. Verghese 2014 Field level larval identification of Cerambycid and Buprestid borers. There are many possibilities as to which grub he is referring as most wood boring larvae begin their life cycle under the bark of their habitat tree. The more eggs she lays during her short life the more chance there is that some hatching larvae will survive to find food and start a new generation. He makes a brief reference to the cream-coloured wattle tree bardi but does not mention the white colour of the smaller grass tree grubs as noted earlier by Nind (1831) and Grey (1840). Write a review. Canberra: National Library of Australia. Attributed to Dr Alexander Collie in Neville Green (ed.) Most species of moth spend the majority of their life in larva form, with just a short time spent as an adult winged-moth in order to breed. The moth of the Wattle Goat grub lays her eggs on trees that are usually under stress, damaged by land clearing, stock or even nicks in the bark, scars cuts etc are great places to lay eggs, some 15,000 at a time. We suggest that entomologists and researchers in this field should stand back and imagine themselves as hungry hunter-gatherers, then ask whether the Linnaean-defined biological and physical structural differentiations of adult insect forms would help to resolve your hunger? Let’s talk about the life cycle of the Wattle grub first, so you can better understand what they are about. …Those from the zanthorrheas [Xanthorrhoea] have the flavour of chestnut; they are found in abundance under the bark of a genus [of] eucalyptus, when first beginning to decay; but these have an astringent taste. These Caterpillars are grey and hairy with a brown head. Have we ever been that hungry where the name doesn’t matter so long as the food is edible? They believe also that stolen paalucks occasion sickness and eruptions. 6 to the Inquirer, 10th August. His polite offer being courteously declined, he snapped them up, one by one, smacking his lips, to show us that what we had refused was esteemed, by him, as a “bonne bouche.”, ‘The caterpillars, people call them grubs, are known by the natives in some places as “bardies,” and are considered by them to be a delicious morsel, as much appreciated as an oyster by an epicure. This is a much better way to identify a hole in the ground than sticking ones finger in! Compiled by Rosemary Whitehurst. Davidson 1935 ‘Myth and Folk-Tales of the Wheelman Tribe of South-Western Australia’ Folklore, Vol. I am told they have a nut-like flavour, but I never had the courage to sample them.’.