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Oxymatrine and spinosad were found to be effective against brinjal shoot and fruit borer, L. orbonalis. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. and see text. Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. Eggplant (brinjal) is a popular vegetable that provides an important source of income for small, resource-poor Bangladeshi farmers. A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Brinjal Farming - Detailed Info & Guide | Secret Tips - check here how to grow brinjal as the commercial brinjal farming/cultivation. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. The first thing that can cause eggplant flowers to fall off is a lack of water and the other is a lack of pollination. Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft 5 in), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. The treatments were defined as follows: T1-50 ppm, T2-100 ppm; T3-150 ppm and T4- Control along with … The white, egg-shaped varieties of the eggplant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[22] a term first attested in 1811. Infestation in shoots decreased after fruit setting and completely disappeared thereafter. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and potato. Persian bādingān was borrowed in turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān (or, with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān). In Chinese cuisine, eggplants are known as qiézi (茄子). FSB is a moth whose larvae bore into the stem and fruit of brinjal. The most widely cultivated varieties—cultivars—in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 cm (4 1⁄2–10 in) long and 6–9 cm (2 1⁄2–3 1⁄2 in) broad with a dark purple skin. Mulching helps conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases and the plants benefit from some shade during the hottest part of the day. Raw eggplant is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and has negligible fat (table). Some common cultivars have fruit that is egg-shaped, glossy, and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. From Greek, the word was borrowed into Italian and medieval Latin, and onwards into French. An example of it use is in the dish hasamiyaki (挟み焼き) in which slices of eggplant are grilled and filled with a meat stuffing. Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. In 13th-century Italian traditional folklore, the eggplant can cause insanity. Eggplant can be steamed, stir-fried, pan fried, deep fried, barbecued, roasted, stewed, curried, or pickled. [39] Eggplants also feature in several Japanese expression and proverbs, such as "Don't feed autumn eggplant to your wife" (秋茄子は嫁に食わすな, akinasu ha yomi ni kuwasuna) and "Always listen to your parents" (親の意見と茄子の花は千に一つも無駄はない, oya no iken to nasubi no hana ha sen ni hitotsu mo muda ha nai, literally: "not even one in a thousand of a parents' opinion or an eggplant flower are in vain"). in brinjal determines and facilitates self or cross-pollination and subsequent fruit set. The stem is often spiny. The flowers before fruit set are light purple. Along with when to grow brinjals, where does brinjal grows, how to prepare brinjal seedlings from brinjals seeds, pests & diseases in brinjal farming with secret tips for higher profit. The global area under brinjal cultivation has been estimated at 1.85 million ha with total production of brinjal fruit of about 32 million MTs (FAO data, 2005, Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. Abstract The present study investigated the population dynamics of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guen (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) (an important pest of brinjal crop in Pakistan) to know that how weather parameters affect the population of the pest. Similarly, H.C.F. The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial plant often cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. Divine Trap Industries - Offering smart trap Leucinodes Orbonalis (Brinjal Fruit And Shoot Borer) at Rs 25/set in Kolkata, West Bengal. [8] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. Get contact details and address | ID: 20787810088 Korean and Japanese eggplant varieties are typically thin-skinned.[37]. Pollination at 2.00 PM gave higher fruit set percentage (78 .84%), number of fruit developed to maturity (20 .70) and fruit developed to maturity percentage (85.51%). Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. In Andalusia, eggplant is mostly cooked thinly sliced, deep-fried in olive oil and served hot with honey (berenjenas a la Cordobesa). [56], The color of purple skin cultivars is due to the anthocyanin nasunin. The Bt brinjal has been developed to give resistance against lepidopteron insects, in particular the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis)(FSB). The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that eggplants could cause insanity. Eggplant can be hollowed out and stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings, and then baked. The French name was then borrowed into British English, appearing there first in the late eighteenth century. Common Name: Eggplant, Aubergine Indian Names: Baingan (Hindi), Badenekayi (Kannada), Kathirikayi (Tamil) Botanical Name: Solanum melongena Vegetable type: Berry (The brinjal is actually classified as a fruit!) Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes. High percentage of long styled flowers results in better fruit set and yield and the number of long styled flowers is directly associated with fruit set, showing a positive association with yield. Eggplant Blossoms Drying Out from Lack of Water. [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. Introduction of Brinjal (Eggplant): Brinjal or Eggplant is an important crop of subtropics and tropics. The initiation of tomato fruit growth, fruit set, is very sensitive to environmental conditions. In Georgia, for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. ÿïHâ¼Xkùø"¡‡³¬ r2"Š­@êæ;)l_Qâq±S 4>´Æ‰V4Iöµê&êj9™—seºæª$. Early forms include: From these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna. Brinjal Farming. In 2018, world production of eggplants was 54 million tonnes, led by China with 63% of the total and India with 24% (table). Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium. The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. For this purpose, brinjal crop was grown in three selected districts i.e. ŒîO¦Ñ®Y22 •î!š6Â4 An actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, included Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within two hours. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. Spinosad was effective at fruiting stage. However, brinjal is highly susceptible to the fruit and shoot borer (FSB) pest. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. Uses Eggplant or Brinjal is eaten grilled, stuffed, roasted, served in soups and stews and on kebabs, and used in curries and stir-fries. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. Read about company. [63], Like the potato and S. lichtensteinii, but unlike the tomato, which then was generally put in a different genus, the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum, in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. Raw eggplant can have a bitter taste, with an astringent quality, but it becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. and Solanum melongena var. Flowering and fruit set are two most important factors determining the seed yield of cultivated brinjal. Evaluation of bio-pesticides and insecticides against brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis guenee) in Meghalaya of north-Eastern India. Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. In other words, style lengths longer than the anther tips or at around the peripherals of the anther sacs can set fruits. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). [52], Spacing should be 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. [15], Because of the plant's relationship with various other nightshades, the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is usually eaten cooked. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544 C.E. When an eggplant has flowers but no fruit, this is due to one of two issues. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. It was, therefore, concluded that foliar application of H 3BO 3 at150 ppm (at flowering stage) could increase the percentage of flowering, fruit set … [16], The eggplant has a special place in folklore. Minor changes in nutrient composition occur with season, environment of cultivation (open field or greenhouse), and genotype. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Design (RCBD) replicated three times. ؈›ÝÄÀOÈ]š~–c!Fëç€ðK¼¥Ÿk|¶Èñ2\àõ The dish is characteristically served with the stalk attached. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [49].. Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. [59] Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost has passed. DC Field Value Language; dc.contributor.advisor: Kumara Pillai, Leelamma Learn how and when to remove this template message, Imperial examination in Chinese mythology, "A Comparative Genetic Linkage Map of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Its Implications for Genome Evolution in the Solanaceae", "Patterns of Food Consumption in Early Modern Iran", Lost Crops of Africa, Volume II: Vegetables, "Eggplant, White — Solanum ovigerum Dun. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines. In some parts of India, miniature cultivars, most commonly called, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 14:00. It remains in scientific use. Veg recipes of India. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. The Arabic word bāḏinjān was borrowed into Greek by the eleventh century CE. Translated into English as 'mad-apple', 'rage-apple', or 'raging apple', this name for eggplants is attested from 1578 and the form 'mad-apple' may still be found in Southern American English. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. [62] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. Through the colonial expansion of Portugal, the Portuguese form bringella was borrowed into a variety of other languages: Thus although Indian English brinjal ultimately originates in languages of the Indian Subcontinent, it actually came into Indian English via Portuguese. Brinjal has been cultivated in India for the last 4,000 years, although it is often thought of as a Mediterranean or mid-Eastern vegetable. Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop of sub-tropics and tropics. How To Grow Brinjal. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition. At market maturity, the fruit stem hardens and a sharp knife is needed to cut fruit from plants. [11] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was grown throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages, who introduced it to Spain in the 8th century. In English usage, modern names deriving from Arabic bāḏinjān include: All the aubergine-type names have the same origin, in the Dravidian languages. Some cultivars have a color gradient—white at the stem, to bright pink, deep purple or even black. Infestations can lead to yield losses as high as 86 percent [1], a devastating hit for smallholder farmers with whom Feed the Future works. Harvesting is done by cutting the stem rather than by pulling the fruit. [42][43], Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants), Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots), In the Philippines, eggplants are of the long and slender purple variety. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts. Over the years, it has been well established that tomato … It is frequently, but not always, cooked with fat. brownii. courage continued fruit set. It can be stuffed. Its numerous seeds are small, soft and edible, along with the rest of the fruit, and do not have to be removed. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. [35] The fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces, which may enhance the flavor of eggplant dishes. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. They should be severed from the plant by cutting with small shears or a knife. These forms also gave rise to the Caribbean English melongene. The BCR of 4.12 and 4.00 was obtained in IPM package 6 and package 5 with 8 and 5 sprays, respectively. [31][32], On 9 February 2010, the Environment Ministry of India imposed a moratorium on the cultivation of Bt brinjal after protests against regulatory approval of cultivated Bt brinjal in 2009, stating the moratorium would last "for as long as it is needed to establish public trust and confidence". Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate this process can facilitate the production of this agriculturally valuable fruit crop. Although Picken (1984) extensively reviewed pollina-tion and fruit set in tomato, in this review more recent infor- Flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and may be self- or cross-pollinated.[53]. Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition. Common North American pests include the potato beetles, flea beetles, aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites. Eggplant (US,[1] Australia,[2] New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK,[3] Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa)[4] is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. esculentum (L.) Nees", "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert", "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette", "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine", "North, South, Go Pick! Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). The ripe fruits are usually pale to bright yellow in colour; The seeds are scattered through the fruit, embedded in a firm placenta. [36] Eggplant flesh is smooth. Harvesting and Yield in Brinjal Cultivation . Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)",, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning",, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A mix of roasted eggplant, roasted red peppers, chopped onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery, and spices is called zacuscă in Romania, and ajvar or pinjur in the Balkans. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. The results of this study suggested that application of flubendiamide at 5% level of fruit infestation in combination with mechanical control+potash @100 kg/ha+field sanitation may be used for the management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer. They are often deep fried and made into dishes such as yúxiāng-qiézi ("fish fragrance eggplant")[38] or di sān xiān ("three earthen treasures"). Fruits are allowed to attain a good size and colour till they do not loose their bright, glossy appearance and become dull. The fruit is dark purple to black and some varieties are white hence the name Egg fruit because it is oval shaped like an egg. Thesis Flowering, pollination and fruit set in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L) Author(s) Leelamma Mathew KAU In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. lasiocarpum.[63]. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. Solanum trongum Poir. Eggplant, aubergine or brinjal is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of boron on flower and fruit setting and yield of ratoon crop of brinjal (Solanum melongina L) in the Eastern Region of Sri Lanka. Long and peristyly conditions set fruits. ›‚ïöQE,ÃHê@%aµÁùûÓ'±eRÃPX¨0 VÙÓ'¿}Ì©÷èÊÖà”*YŸ«ܨÉN£A³Å:¤—oݯ_}ÿu9”þŽR'1ÆXj/ [citation needed] Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Traditional, white-skinned, egg-shaped cultivars include 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'. [40][41], In Korean cuisine, eggplants are known as gaji (가지). Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. Fruit set (normal fruit) was 100% in lines ‘AE-P03’ and ‘AE-P10’, and we selected ‘AE-P03’ for further study. The Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that 'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'.[26]. Among various stylar levels in brinjal, long styled flowers shows high pollination as well as fruit set efficiency followed by medium styled flowers and so on (Chen 2001, Sekara and Bieniasz 2008). [31] This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects such as the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera). [28], The plant is also known as guinea squash in Southern American English. Grows about one meter tall. Leucinodes orbonalis, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer or brinjal fruit and shoot borer, is a moth species in the genus Leucinodes.It is found in the tropics of Asia, and it is a minor pest in the Americas.Furthermore, it has been intercepted in imports of Solanaceae fruits from Asia and has been taken at light in the UK presumably as an result of such importations. However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. It provides low amounts of essential nutrients, with only manganese having a moderate percentage (11%) of the Daily Value. ÓDX (Q ÕDÉöèÚl20 S± ìÁI €èè>/'¤ÛJ0ô‡@¤Á‘“‡C¤ ÔD]. Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. The borer cannot digest the artificial protein, which kills it. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat). Aubergine is the British name for brinjal and in United States, Australia and Canada, it is known by the name eggplant, because fruits of the earlier cultivars resembled eggs of goose or hen. [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. The unfruitfulness of … As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and potato. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. Ø$SL¡ÑË×Y1"øz´5'ªæ jLmÅ `6¡½Ä†©á–¾¿ŸÜfBu5%/šÌoƒQ6¿øß«qcæeÇÌÇQB¼Û*¨šÙám®iSÐui*µ*˜.ÝhޗÃÛ Ûi_0j߸ ÓLîQ(¤_[Ö$'¬M~^åÀOȽ“YðKªdÆ˜¬àj [55], The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. [17] In 19th-century Egypt, insanity was said to be "more common and more violent" when the eggplant is in season in the summer.[18]. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. [50][51] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. 'è¯è½ˆB¼Õö&-‡ÿñÅtœŽîÇ"MÖXJD¶P\%imhP^“aÁ\Š)G³È¹ùª…\m [63], The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum), known as gilo and nakati, respectively, and described by Linnaeus as S. aethiopicum. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. percentage of fruit set (46%), number of fruits/plant (216%) and fresh weight of fruits/plant (88 %) than that of control. The transgenic brinjal was developed to resist the fruit and shoot borer, a pest that can reduce the plant’s productivity by 70%. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. Harvesting: Fruits are harvested when they are immature. fruit set of Solanaceous vegetables will be discussed, with particular reference to the processes involved in fruit set from the initiation and development of flowers and there-after. [13] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[14]. The term guinea in the name originally denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa. The biggest constraint to brinjal production is the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB). EÚ Jðl¥M˜È^5ÒÎ÷BËPÊÀÊ{>î0óÁU±¹†üD|¸˜ßŽÍh/ø`6Á’Þ¾†¹æÇË;˜mºä¢(äÂ7B„W7ÁËÕXD@#p3‡'dR©ï°X6ǺÅ'¦Æt”­ñŠZàJ]hÓ`‹H[r7Š…MQ¡XÐg©+úÝăDpgŒ“:œv1¬£mt™0¨F‹FфB7ò ôú€9!ÿ7–ãm¾-þ*ý‘†Ö4šî4Ö ŒhŒ¨¾ ~ËpJˆG‹àe6G\xž;ЩP¥ÖžÁ,)pÞëˆfÒU¨S캝‹¼…•&¡µÃX£©²„IÂ8 LV²>„/P±Òº&ÌÜãPƒ¯;uKF¢ÞÍ;‚»à%;ÊE‚ˆLa„3×ì2p¥a×Ë¢±¯Èv&;+Åa’6+Q¯ú±'µÓ¸9¬g €hçL/HGÁã½C@a‰{€Þâ¤,.JX̋!

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