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what is dunaliella salina

doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.37.100183.000523. Dunaliella Salina Extract is an extract of the alga, Dunaliella salina. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. The biotechnology of mass culturing. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, … “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Lerche W. Untersuchungen über Entwicklung und Fortpflanzung in der Gattung Dunaliella. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. This page was last edited on 7 June 2020, at 19:54. Eukaryota (Domain); Viridiplantae (Kingdom); Chlorophyta (Phylum); Chlorophyceae (Class); Volvocales (Order); Dunaliellaceae (Family); Dunaliella (Genus). Heakal F., Hefny M., El-Tawab A., “Electrochemical behaviour of 340L stainless steel in high saline and sulphate solutions containing alga Dunaliella salina and β-carotene. Journal of Alloys and 1989;27:221–6. “A century years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005.” Saline Systems, 2005. They belong to the category of halophiles. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. Hydrobiologia. So pink, in fact, that it makes this salt lake in western Australia look like it’s made of … [3] Sexual reproduction begins when two D. salina’s flagella touch leading to gamete fusion. Dunaliella salina is a type of one-celled green microalgae which was first discovered in 1838 in Southern France. The mass culture of Dunaliella for fine chemicals: from laboratory to pilot plant. The mitochondrial and plastid genome contains 28.3 (12 genes) and 269 kb (102 genes) respectively [9]. Dunaliella salina,the English name Dunaliella salina,was from 3.8 billion years ago. [9] D. salina may also be a source of vitamin B12. Craigie JS, McLachlan J. Glycerol as a photosynthetic product in Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher. Algae Biomass. Ben-Amotz A. Glycerol, β-carotene and dry algal meal production by commercial cultivation of Dunaliella. Dunaliella species are able to tolerate varying NaCl concentrations, ranging from 0.2% to approximately 35% [3]. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a … 1937; 88:236–268. 9. Oren A. Chen H., Lu Y. and Jiang J. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae and its industrial potential. Thus, Dunaliella salina is a hyper-halotolerant organism found in high densities in saline lakes. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. It provides a range of trace minerals and nutrients. Today, the algae is being studied for various health benefits. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … After germination, the zygotes release up to 32 haploid daughter cells. Dunaliella is a unicellular, bi-flagellate, naked green alga (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae). [5][6][7] Different technologies are used, from low-tech extensive cultivation in lagoons to intensive cultivation at high cell densities under carefully controlled conditions. are motile, unicellular, rod to ovoid shaped green algae, which are common in marine (salient) waters. 6.3.2 Spacing between electrodes. 1983;37:95–119. Low salt concentrations of 2% and 5% induced sexual activity, whereas higher salt concentration of 30% decreases sexual reproduction[10]. Glycerol is used as a means by which to maintain both osmotic balance and enzymatic activity. Known for its anti-oxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics … The GC content of "D. salina" is relatively low compared to other Chlamydomonadales at 34.4% for mitochondrial DNA and 32.1% for plastid DNA[9]. 603–610. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. 22 Nov 2012. Teodoresco was the first to publish his work, so he is generally given credit for this categorization. Dunaliella salina is rich in beta carotenoid, which is a provitamin A, a precursor to vitamin A. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(88)80132-9. Dunaliella salina is nature's richest source of natural beta-carotene, each gram contains around10-20mg of beta-carotene, plus other carotenoids and nutrients.Research shows that natural dietary beta … 1964;42:777–778. D. salina is also adapted to solar radiation using β-carotene to protect against ionizing energy. (2011). 152–157. It is mostly a marine organism, though there … Dunaliella Salina is a micro algae species. Web. Therefore, D. salina has a much less overall impact to colouration and archaeal communities contribute more to the red colouration of hypersaline lakes. DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01036.x, 4. Massjuk, N.P. Dunaliella salina is a microalga in the green algae family. Gimmler H. and Hartung W. “Low Permeability of the Plasma Membrane of Dunaliella parva for Solutes.” Journal of Plant Physiology, 1988. Brock T. “Salinity and the Ecology of Dunaliella from Great Salt Lake.” Journal of General Microbiology, 1975. Chen BJ, Chi CH. In general, Dunaliella salina … "A hundred years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005", MicrobeWiki reference on Dunaliella salina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=985733698, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The sequencing of Dunaliella species is important to isolate different species for commercial purposes. Betatene ® is a naturally sourced beta-carotene derived from algae (Dunaliella salina) and part of the broad beta-carotene product range BASF offers. Annu Rev Microbiol. Just like other forms of algae, it is an aquatic organism that grows in salt water. Distance between the electrodes in an electrolytic unit is an important design variable that affects the cost of operation [94].In harvesting of Dunaliella salina … The D. salina organelle genome sequence are circular and large with approximately 60% non-coding DNA [9]. Mixed Carotenoids. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. D. salina has adapted to survive in high salinity environments by accumulating glycerol to balance osmotic pressure. Glycerol is a compatible solute in which not only contributes to osmotic balance of the cell but also maintains enzyme activity (Brown as stated in Oren[1]). 10.1371/journal.pone.0037578, 16. 14. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Martinez et al. Gantner Verlag K.-G.. Mixed Carotenoids. Although technically the production of glycerol from D. salina was shown to be possible, economic feasibility is low and no biotechnological operation exists to exploit the alga for glycerol production.[12]. 10. Dunaliella Salina Powder is obtained by Dunaliella salina through multiple processings. Dunaliella salina was thought to be responsible for the red colouring of salted brines [1]. In: Shelef G, Soeder CJ, editor. Among various carotenoid-rich microalgae, D. salina has the greatest carotene concentration making up ~10% algal dry weight[6]. These enzymes regulate glycerol requirements of the cell by responding to osmotic stresses. 11. Due to its ability to produce red pigmentation, β-carotene, the natural food colouring is highly demanded for cosmetic products[1]. The D. salina zygote is extraordinarily hardy and can survive exposure to fresh water and to dryness. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae. Dunaliella salina is famous for much more than causing the waters of Las Coloradas's salt-ponds to turn pink: The alga is grown commercially as a source of beta-carotene. This natural beta-carotene offers a number of unique … Dunaliella Salina. 12. [1], Species in the genus Dunaliella are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. Oren A. and Rodriguez-Valera F. “The contribution of halophilic Bacteria to the red coloration of saltern crystallizer ponds.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2001. However, carotenoids responsible for the red colouration in D. salina are found in algal chloroplasts, whereas halophilic archaea also occupying hypersaline lakes have red pigments dispersed throughout the cell membrane [2]. 1. [10] determined the sexual activity of "D. salina" from evaluating ratio of zygotes and zygospores to total cells observed in culture. Can J Bot. [4], From a first pilot plant for D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production established in the USSR in 1966, the commercial cultivation of D. salina for the production of β-carotene throughout the world is now one of the success stories of halophile biotechnology. Schilipaulis L. “The Extensive Commercial Cultivation of Dunaliella.” Bioresource Technology, 1991. Dunaliella salina extract is also a natural source of vitamin B12. Farahat N., Rabhi M., Falleh H., Jouini J., Abdelly C. and Smaoui A. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. It can be used to boost your protection against UV damage and increase … Mokady S, Abramovici A, Cogau U. doi: 10.1007/BF00027649. Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. Attempts have been made to exploit the high concentrations of glycerol accumulated by D. salina as the basis for the commercial production of this compound. Dunaliella is known for its antioxidant activity … Tawan Chatsungnoen, Yusuf Chisti, in Biofuels from Algae (Second Edition), 2019. [3] studied the effects of salinity to maximize β-carotene production and found carotenoid concentration increases with increasing salinity. Zhao, R., Cao, Y., Xu, H., Lv, L., Qiao, D. & Cao, Y. Dunaliella sp. Olmos J., Paniagua J. and Contreras R. “Molecular identification of Dunaliella sp. 2. Martinez G., Cifuentes A., Gonzalez M. and Parra O. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substance. D. Salina is a unicellular biflagellate red-coloured alga which synthesises massive amounts of carotenoid pigments, colouring the cells a very bright red. Food Chem Toxicol. In order to maximize β-carotene production, D. salina should be grown in 1.5M to 3.0 M NaCl concentration until a stable cell density is reached then increased to 4.4 – 5.0 M NaCl concentration for maximum carotenoid production [3]. 1984;116/117:115–121. of America, 2011. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic press… The cell membrane of D. salina has low permeability to glycerol to prevent glycerol from leaving the cell [13], accounting for the high concentration inside the cell. This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 17:06. Ruggell: A.R.A. DUNALIELLA SALINA EXTRACT and EXTRACT OF DUNALIELLA SALINA. In simple terms, it means, these … Web. Different technologies are used, … [11] D. salina preserves a high concentration of glycerol by maintaining a cell membrane with low permeability to glycerol and synthesizing large quantities of glycerol from starch as a response to high extracellular salt concentration, which is why it tends to thrive in highly salinic environments. The safety evaluation of Dunaliella bardawil as a potential food supplement. “Effects of Salts on Halophilic Alga Dunaliella viridis.” Journal of Bacteriology, 1968. What is Dunaliella? What makes it so special is that it actually thrives in harsh … The ability to tolerate high salt concentrations is advantageous, since competition is minimal as salt high salt concentrations. (2011). & Lilitska, G.G. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile pink micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Sexual reproduction, the formation of two gametes into a zygospore, is affected by salt concentrations[1]. Dunaliella salina was named by Emanoil C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. Biotechnol Bioengin. The taxonomy of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales) with emphasis on the marine and halophilic species. 17. The genus was first described by Teodoresco (Teodoresco, 1905) with the type of species being Dunaliella salina, and … Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga of the genus and was studied since the early 19th century, and numerous species were characterized and classified since then. Arch f Protistenkd. [14] found that high salt concentration inside cells decrease enzymatic activity. Dunaliella salina is a genus of one-celled green microalgae first discovered in 1838 in southern France. 8. DOI: 10.5772/19046. It possesses Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, Photoprotection, Antiproliferative … They are contained in the chloroplasts in lipid globules[9]. (2007). Dunaliellales. Wengmann K. “Osmotic Regulation of photosynthetic Glycerol Production in Dunaliella.” Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1971. Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae (phytoplankton) especially found in sea salt fields. Lives in environments with a … Johnson M., Johnson E., MacElroy R., Speer H. and Bruff B. Tammam A., Fakhry E. and El-Sheekh M. “Effect of salt stress on antioxidant system and the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species in Dunaliella saline and Dunaliella tertiolecta.” African Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga found in environments with high salt concentration [1]. [8], Due to the abundance of β-carotene, which is an anti-oxidant as well as a vitamin A precursor, D. salina is a popular pro-vitamin A food supplement and cosmetic additive. [10], D. salina lacks a rigid cell wall, which makes the organism susceptible to osmotic pressure. Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. 1981;23:1267–1287. 2 It is often referred to as a halophile (literally, “salt-loving”) alga because it grows only in high-salt … Glycerol is produced through two metabolic processes: intracellular synthesis through a photosynthetic product and metabolism of starch in the cell [15]. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-83. Dunaliella is a single-celled, photosynthetic green alga, that is characteristic for its ability to outcompete other organisms and thrive in hypersaline environments. Dunaliella salina is a safe and potent source of natural beta-carotene and suitable for all types of skin disorders and inflammation. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2392. n.d. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina has been researched, much about the genome was unknown until Smith et al. Osmotic stress affects enzyme activity of key enzymes of the glycerol metabolic pathway: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, dihydroxyacetone reductase, and dihydroxyacetone kinase[15]. Dunaliella Salina Powder is known as the "power source of cells" and "protective agent of life" by the world scientific community due to its rich and unique life nutrient elements. Though D. salina can survive in salinic environments, Martinez et al. It is a single-celled eukaryotic … This combination offers potential in biotechnological applications for the purpose of commercial products such as lipstick due to β-carotene production [4]. 3. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. … doi: 10.1002/bit.260230608. It acts as a powerful antioxidant for skin. The chloroplast can hold large amounts of β-carotene, which makes it appear orange-red. , 6. Journal of Applied Phycology 19: 567-590. β-carotene is a type of pro-vitamin A, responsible for inhibiting the production of free radicals from ultraviolet light [3]. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. 22 Nov. 2012. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. When applied on skin it can reverse any ongoing oxidative damage to the … Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. Thus, while D. salina live in high salt concentrations, they maintain a relatively low concentration of sodium inside [15]. [2], D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. Web. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource, http://blog.recoverye21.com/dunaliella-salina/, https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Dunaliella_salina&oldid=142865. [9] found that both genomes are highly occupied with introns: mitochondrial DNA (58%) and plastid DNA (65.5%). “Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses.” PLoS ONE, 2012, DOI: 13. Dunaliella salina is a model organism to study the effects of saline adaptation in algae [1]. [8] sequenced five species of Dunaliella using their 18S ribosomal RNA genes. In addition, Smith et al. “Effect of salinity on sexual activity of Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco, strain CONC-006.” Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 1995. Smith D., Lee R., Cushman J., Magnuson J., Tran D. and Polle J.” The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.” BMA Plant Biology, 2010. utilizing the 18S rDNA gene.” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2000. References for this information: Pharmaceutical Biology, October 2016, pages 2,269-2,275 Journal of Food Science and Technology, … [9] studied the mitochondrial and plastid genome of D. salina. It is a whole food supplement. 22 Nov 2012. 15. Dunaliella Salinais a green algae best known for turning lakes red around the world. But don’t let its pedigree fool you--this little alga is bright pink! Dunaliella salina It’s an halophile microalga that grow in high salt concentrations, this fact reduces drastically the possibilities that pathogenic microorganisms can grow up. “Microalgal Biotechnology and Bioenergy in Dunaliella” Biomedical Engineering, 2011. Johnson et al. The β-carotene appears to protect the organism from long-term UV radiation that D. salina is exposed to in its typical environments. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. Although there is a much greater abundance of D. salina, the red pigments on the cell membrane of archaea are more visibly accessible. Studies have found that Dunaliella salina … What is Dunaliella salina? Dunaliella salina is a special type of microalga. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by Teodoresco and Clara Hamburger of Heidelberg, Germany in 1905. What is Dunaliella Salina? Dunaliella has two flagella of equal length and has a single cup-like chloroplast that often contains a central pyrenoid. Cancer . In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. In addition, the role of glycerol in D. salina as a key organic compatible solute has been used as a research model [1]. 7. determined that sexual activity of D. salina significantly decreases in higher salt concentrations (>10%) and is induced in lower salt concentrations. Skin Nourishment and moisturizing Dunaliella Salina contains effective mineral high concentration of … “Optimization of salt concentrations for a higher carotenoid production in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae).” Phycological Society High extracellular salt concentration drives the synthesis of glucose. DOI: 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90162-D, 5. D. salina comes in various shapes and symmetries depending on the conditions in its current environment. Shariati M., Hadi M.R. Rejuvenal healthy aging, n.d. β-carotene also contributes to the anti-oxidant effects of D. salina[11] and is used as an additive in human and animal nutrition for sources of vitamin A [3]. Kumudha A, Sarada R. Characterization of vitamin B12 in. Olmos et al. Dunaliella salina lacks a rigid wall, and the plasma membrane alone makes the cell susceptible to osmotic pressure [1]. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the green alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta). Compounds, 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.028. Farhat et al. However, despite the positive contributions of D. salina, commercial production is limited due to the low productivity of β-carotene [3]. Borowitzka LJ, Borowitzka MA, Moulton TP. Dunaliella salina can reproduce asexually, sexually and through division of motile vegetative cells[1]. Dunaliella Salinais a green micro-algae typically found in sea salt fields around the world. Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are the most important species for β-carotene production; however, other pigments and compounds like lutein, chlorophyll, glycerol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are also produced by these and other Dunaliella … Glycerol synthesis from starch is regulated through osmotic changes as shown in Figure 5. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. Dunaliella salina are found in high salinity environments such as salted brines, salt evaporation ponds, and hypersaline lakes [7]. Dunaliella Salina is a genus of the algae family Dunaliellaceae. It produces a distinct pink and red colour often characteristic of saltern ponds [2]. Michel Felix Dunal first discovered "D. salina" in 1838 in the south of France occupying; however, it was not named until 1905 by Teodoresco [1]. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp.

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