economic importance of family poaceae
Economic Uses: - (Poaceae); simultaneous analysis of Economically, this is the most important family of flowering plants. The lower two empty bracts are called glumes. Econonmic importance: Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seeds yield edible oil. Fire is pervasive in natural grasslands—early settlers of the North American grasslands, for example, recorded spectacular annual fires—and beneficial in that a fire recycles nutrients bound in dead plants into the soil for use by living plants. The use of lime from wood ashes or another source played a significant role in the diets of people who depended on corn as a staple because, without the lime treatment, it lacks a sufficient amount of the vitamin niacin. Poaceae or grassland are dominated by plant communities. Ironically, most crop grasses were originally successful weeds. usually known as grass family, have 12 subfamilies, about 600 genera, and some 10,000 or more species.they are arranged in spikelets, each has one or more florets. An example of a domesticated diploid wheat is einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), one of the earliest domesticated wheat species. Characteristics of Solanaceae Family Plants and their Economic Importance, Characteristics of Rosaceae Family Plants and their Economic Importance, Characteristics of Mimosaceae Family PlantsAnd Their Economic Importance, Characteristics of Fabaceae Family Plants and Economic Importance, Caesalpiniaceae Family Plants Characteristics and Examples, Class Angiospermae: Generation Alternation, Classification, and Angiospermic Families, Difference between Endospore and Exospore, Difference between biotic and abiotic factors, Parts of Small intestine and their Functions, Roles of Essential Elements And Nutritional Disorders of Plants, Importance of Phylum Porifera/Sponges With Examples & Characteristics, Binomial Nomenclature or Binary Nomenclature in Biology, Structure of Bacteria with Respiration, Reproduction, and Growth. A leading hypothesis derives the ear from the tassel of a teosinte (Zea maya subspecies parviglumis), a wild relative of corn. For example, whiskey is prepared from rye, corn, and rum molasses from sugar cane. Corn can be ground into tortillas, an unleavened “bread,” parched, or prepared with wood ashes or shells to make a hominy. 1. Grasses are annual, biennial, or perennial plants that are usually herbaceous but may be woody in some genera. Considerable controversy surrounds the origin of the totally unique ear of corn. Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) root tubers are edible. It has been suggested that the tree grasses (or bamboos) provide more and more varied uses than any other plant on Earth. The domestication of rice dates to about 4000 bc in mainland Southeast Asia (Thailand, Myanmar [Burma], and South China). The earliest evidence of cereal domestication appears in Southwest Asia about 7000 bc, when domesticated barley that was totally dependent on humans for seed dispersal first appeared in several Middle Eastern sites. These plants are: Fodders Most of the fodders of the animals also belongs to this family. While the cereals and sugarcane are a primary food source, bamboos provide a remarkable range of useful products. Grasses that produce desirable grain but that are not adaptable to agricultural habitats, however, have not become domesticated. It has 600 genera and 10,000 species. Sorghum grains are a rich source of protein (approximately 15 percent of its weight), and its sap is concentrated into molasses. The following section provides a brief description of 25 important plant families. Required fields are marked *, Poaceae Family Characteristics and Economic Importance. The family comprises of about 500 genera and 4500 species including such as Avena sativa (Oat – Jai, Barley) commonly distributed in temperate region, but are also found in tropical and sub-trope! Up to 70 percent of the world’s agricultural land is given to crop grasses, and more than 50 percent of the world’s calories come from grasses, particularly the cereals. The importance of this condition rests in the larger store of genes, which imparts a greater evolutionary potential on the hybrid. Phragmites australis, for example, is spread vigorously by rhizomes, threatening agriculture wherever there are lowlands or bodies of water near arable fields or pastures. These are herbs, shrubs or trees. Weedy grasses invade and colonize disturbed habitats. Distribution of Sapotaceae 3. Family: Poaceae. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Apiaceae is synonym of . These remarkably adaptable plants play significant, sometimes dominant, roles in many plant communities, such as freshwater and saltwater marshes, tundras, meadows, and disturbed habitats. These changes enhance the quality of cereal crops. No single climate generates grasslands; they develop in areas with wide ranges of rainfall (from semiarid to subhumid) and temperature. (4) Paper is manufactured from grasses and bamboo. These pulses are used as food. they are considered the most important plant family to human, in fact, humans are mostly economically dependent on these communities. Gynoecium: They have a compound pistil with three united carpels. Like sorghum, all these so-called minor cereals belong to the Chloridoideae or Panicoideae. Members of this family are good source of food, wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane etc Use as food of animals, e.g fodder for cattle and sheeps etc. 4. Nonetheless, two are of unequivocal importance Poaceae and Fabaceae. The unit of its inflorescence is called spikelet. The fruits of this plant have high nutritive value and are edible. Family: Poaceae. Fire alone, however, will not maintain grasslands, because some trees are tolerant of fire. These lodicules are hyaline or fleshy. Grasses also are used for livestock feed, erosion control, and turf. Solanaceae and Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Convolvulaceae also rank high in global importance. So these plants have ornamental significance. Cultivation of this species usually involves flooded conditions in paddies, although it is also grown in upland conditions. While this is not a concern on roadsides, abandoned farmlands, vacant lots, and other low-value land, weedy grasses do seriously devalue cultivated areas such as lawns, pastures, and croplands. They are found almost all over the world in varying sizes, varying types and with specific genera features, most even specific to continents. Poa, Festuca, etc. The grass family is undoubtedly the most important plant family to mankind, agriculturally, economically and ecologically. A hyaline scale-like bract is a present opposite to lemma. Young shoots of several species of Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, and Phyllostachys are important vegetables in the daily diet of the peoples of China, Japan, and Taiwan and a gourmet item in other parts of the world. The thousands of rice cultivars supply the basic food for more than half of the world. It is called the palea. Often ecologically dominant, it is estimated to comprise 25% of Earth’s vegetation. Paper Industry: Some species of grasses are used for making papers. The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals. Grasslands are estimated to comprise about 20% of the world's vegetation. Characteristic features of Family Poaceae: * Habit: Most are herbs; some are shrubs, while a few are even trees (Bambusa). These spikelets are variously arranged. (The term corn is confusing outside of the United States, where it refers to cereals in general.) Economic Importance of Poaceae: The family stands first and foremost in respect of economic importance in whole of Angiosperms. Ornamental plants: Many members of family poaceae are used for ornamental purposes i.e. Kellogg, in Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), 2013. The spikelets are arranged on a slender axis called the rachilla. Although; it has importance both for men and animals. These fruits are used in bakery and confectioneries. It encloses the flower. 2. The importance of cereals (Poaceae: Gramineae) nutrition in human health: A review Muhammad Haroon Sarwar 1, Muhammad Farhan Sarwar 2, Muhammad Sarwar 3*, Niaz Ahmad Qadri 4 and Safia Moghal 4 1Faculty of Medicine and Allied Medical Sciences, Isra University, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. All are angiosperms except Pinaceae. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. Palm family or Arecaceae is the second most important family after family Poaceae. The staple food grains of the population of world is derived from Oryza sativa (Rice) and Triticum aestivum (Wheat). The processes of hybridization and polyploidization have produced many valuable crops. Perianth: It is absent or it is represented by 2 (rarely 3) scales called lodicules. Alcohol and beverages: Ethyl alcohol and many other beverages are prepared from cereals. 2. Economic importance: Food: Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum vulgare Eleusine coracana are used as food for mankind. All major habitats of grasses are open and largely devoid of trees. Its flowers are unisexual—staminate (male) flowers are clustered in a tassel, and pistillate (female) flowers are found in an ear. For 15 families with species of economic value, we found no genome sequences have as yet been published, most of them in the six orders containing species of economic value but with no published sequences. The stem of this plan… While their anther is versatile. Barley and sorghum are among the top 20 grains in terms of production. Androecium: They have 1 to 6, mostly 3, free stamens. Wheat, rye, corn, and barley contribute to the making of whiskeys and vodka. It provides the major cereal crops and most of the grazing for wild and domestic herbivores. Poaceae – Grass Family. The ancestors of modern weedy grasses may have evolved as a result of such natural disturbances. E.A. The common species of pulses are Grain, Pea, and Kidney bean. This family has greater importance than all other families of the flowering plants. They rank among the top five families of flowering plants in terms of the number of species, but they are clearly the most abundant and important family of the Earth’s flora. In polyploidy, one or both gametes remain diploid because the chromosomes fail to separate during an early stage of meiosis. The stem might be erect, hairy, woody or prostrate. Grasses constitute the fourth largest plant family in terms of number of species. Characters of Sapotaceae 2. Economic Importance of Poaceae. Economic Importance. Dried grass or hay is also used especially. The selection of the most important plant families is subjective. The development of bread wheat (T. aestivum), a hexaploid wheat, involved the hybridization of a tetraploid wheat with A. tauschii, a closely allied diploid species of grass, followed by chromosome doubling to 42. Saccharum officinarum is the source of sugar. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about Sapotaceae:- 1. Bread wheat, known widely in the Middle East by 6000 bc, is strictly a domesticated species; it arose serendipitously when different species of wheat were grown together. Native grasslands develop where there are frequent fires and droughts, level to gently rolling topography, and in some instances grazing animals and special soil conditions. Poaceae, formerly called Gramineae, grass family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. The general characteristic and economic importance of family apiaceae. The flower of family Apiaceae is . Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr. Reference: Barkworth et al. The glumes or lemmas also contain one or more bristle-like structures called awns. perianth reduced to two scales( Calle lodicules) expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea. Caryopsis is a dry indehiscent fruit in which fruit wall (pericarp) is completely fused with the seed coat. Periodic drought damages the exposed stems of woody vegetation more than the buried underground parts or seeds of grasses. Flower: Flower is usually bisexual (sometimes unisexual), small, inconspicuous, sessile, bracteate, incomplete, zygomorphic, and hypogynous. The economic importance of the plants belonging to the Liliaceae family are: Source of Medicine -Aloe vera, Smilax and Colchicine. Some are al… These species occur in varying proportions and are joined by other grasses, depending on climatic and other factors. One of the first uses of the corn kernels was for popping. The centres of early domestication of the major cereals were the sites of other cultivated grasses as well, the most notable being the millets: proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) in Asia; pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) in Africa and India; and Job’s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi) in Asia. In each of these agricultural centres, members of the pea or bean family (Fabaceae, also called Leguminosae), such as lentils, soybeans, chickpeas, peas, and various beans, were almost as important as the grains. The leaves may be evergreen or deciduous and are all basal or alternate, and usually much longer than wide. 2Government College Samanabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Pulses are rich in proteins. The family has been divided on economic basis as follows: Food: Fodders: Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is one of the best forage crops. three major characteristics of the Poaceae or grass family separate them from other plant families. Common name: Mustard family Number of genera:This family includes 375 genera and about 3200 species. This oil is used in perfumes and soap industry for making infusions. The products from the members of this family are used as food, oil, shelter, decoration, clothing etc. Most grasses produce an edible grain, the bulk of which, the endosperm, provides a rich source of carbohydrates for the germinating embryo. Further, the composition of grasslands has been partially regulated by large herbivores, such as the buffalo on the North American prairie whose grazing suppresses the invasion of woody plants into the grassland and, like fire and drought, may actually stimulate the growth of grasses. 8.Importance of poaceae 1. Broomcorn is a cultivar of sorghum grown for the stalks that are used to make brooms. They may be terrestrial or aquatic. 1. Some of the traits that have made weeds successful, such as their ability to colonize rapidly and to produce an abundance of seeds, are also desirable in crops. In China, Southeast Asia, and Brazil, bamboos have been used in papermaking, and in India the majority of the pulp for paper production comes from bamboos, especially Dendrocalamus strictus. An example of the improvement that results from these two evolutionary processes can be found in the gradual domestication of wheat. Food: Most of the important pulses are belonged to this family. In terms of world production, four of the best known crops are members of the grass family: sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), wheat, rice, and corn (maize). The spikelets of grasses vary in different genera. Economic Importance of Poaceae lies for both men and animals. Economic Importance of Papilionaceae. The leaves may be radical, petiolat… Because fires tend to occur most readily during dry seasons when grass roots, rhizomes, and seeds are protected in the soil and woody plant stems are fully exposed, they tend to do more damage to woody plants than to grasses. grass family. There are 158 genera and 492 species of this family in Pakistan. Agrostis. The economic importance of grasses lies in their role as an important food source. The immediate product of harvesting, brown rice, may be converted to white rice for a visually appealing but nutritionally inferior grain, with reduced protein and B vitamins. Corn differs strikingly from Middle Eastern cereals as it is much larger, and as a member of the Panicoideae it is adapted to warm seasons. Bulbs of Allium cepa and the roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavouring agents. The extraordinary strength and lightness of bamboo stems make them an excellent building material in the construction of houses and temples, woven mats, and bowls, trays, and other vessels. Threshing and winnowing—the separation of chaff from grain—is far easier when the hull separates freely from the grain, as in the cultivated tetraploid macaroni wheat (T. durum), a major commercial wheat species. Although; it has importance both for men and animals. Areas. Among wheats there are three levels of ploidy, or sets of chromosome complements: diploid (2n), the normal condition; tetraploid (2n = 14, resulting from the fusion of diploid gametes); and hexaploid (2n = 21). This family has greater importance than all other families of the flowering plants. They may be arranged on a branched axis-p3n’cle as in spikelets of oat. Paints and soaps: ... Poaceae (GFTAMINEAE) (Monocot) – Grass Family characteristics and floral diagram; Tweet. Source of food (or) Vegetables-Asparagus. Many others were mainstays of the Green Revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s, which bred wheat and other crops specially adapted to the ecological conditions in the agriculturally less developed parts of the world. Gluten, its seed protein, forms the elastic matrix of leavened bread. This whole structure consisting of the lemma, palea, and the flower is called a floret. Propagation type:Fruit, partial fruit, seed Distribution: The species of this family are distributed throughout the world but are abundant in North Temperate Zone with Mediterranean as major center. Abstract. However; they have different numbers of fertile florets and different numbers of sex organs in them. Poaceae - Poaceae - Economic and ecological importance: Grasses dominate large expanses of the middle of continents, such as the North American prairies, South American pampas, African veld, and Eurasian steppes. This crop produces more calories per acre than any other crop, calories that are used in the form of table sugar, to generate alcohol to power automobiles, and for the manufacture of rum. At least 300 grass species are known to be harvested in the wild as cereals, and about 35 are or have been domesticated. Fruit: There fruits are grains or caryopsis. In India this family is represented by about 51 genera and 138 species distributed around temperate and alpine Himalaya. Corn breeders have exploited the vigour inherent in hybrid lines to generate tremendous yields of the grain. These form the basic food of mankind. They have the following characteristic features: 1. The glumes cover the whole of the spikelet. (2) Dried stem and leaves of cereal crops yield toori which is used as fodder for cattle. Every part of this plant body is used in some way or the other. Of note is the order Poales with 32 genomes sequenced, 31 in the family Poaceae (grasses) plus pineapple. Also called the germ, the embryo contains protein, oil, and some vitamins. Domestication of sugarcane is thought to have occurred in Southeast Asia after it was discovered that the stem is a rich source of sugar. Grasses grow in almost all terrestrial environments, including dense forests, open deserts, and freshwater streams and lakes. 2007 FNANM:24 Unabridged Reference: Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ … Cymbopogon throws (lemon grass). Nevertheless, the family is clearly more significant than any other plant family in terms of geographic, ecological, and economic importance. See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. These form the basic food of mankind. January 02, 2020 Angiosperm families, Angiosperms, Botany, Moraceae, Mulberry family. It gives lemongrass oil. (Some investigators believe the domestication of barley may have originated in Ethiopia.) Hybridization of a diploid wheat with Aegilops speltoides (a closely allied species of grass), followed by doubling of the chromosome complement, produced tetraploid wheats. Herbaceous grasses of the subfamily Bambusoideae are generally limited to lowland tropical forests, and some of them (e.g., Pariana) have overcome the relative absence of wind currents by evolving adaptations to insect pollination. It might sometimes contain latex. Agrost is. However; stigma usually large and feather-like. With its high nutritional value and adaptability, corn became the staple crop of all agricultural peoples in the Western Hemisphere by the 1st century bc. Zizania aquatica (see photograph), the wild rice of North America, has been harvested extensively from wild stands, but its requirement of deep-water habitats precluded its domestication until recently. Poaceae contributes to human development as staple food grains, animal grasses, cereal crops, lawn and forage grasses, bumboo ( widely used for construction). Some plants of this family give important drugs and narcotics U4…4 Some of these are bhang Charas. Plant breeders have developed many cultivars of wheat closely adapted to different growing conditions; there are more than 200 cultivars grown in North America alone. Persistence of grasslands depends on the exclusion of competing woody species that would supplant the grasses. Their spilled stems are woven into mats, fans, hats, and course umbrella. What makes bread wheat the most widely cultivated plant in the world today is its adaptability to a wide range of growing conditions, ease of harvesting and handling, and high nutritional value. Grasses have adapted to the full range of environmental extremes occupied by plants, from the coldest regions and highest elevations where plants grow to equatorial heat, and from fully aquatic habitats to deserts. Consequently, fusion of three or more complete sets of chromosomes produce offspring that may be incapable of reproducing with the parent strain and thus constitute a new species. Use as food. the spikelets consist of two or fewer bracts at base. Zea mays, Cynodon, Poa, Saccharum are used as fodder. Cultivation of the cereals began about 10,000 years ago as a major part of the shift from hunting and gathering to plant and animal husbandry, a transition that stimulated rapid social and cultural evolution. Ropes: Fibers are obtained from the leaves of Saccharum munja. These plants are: Triticum sp (Wheat) Avena sativa; Zea mays (corn) Oryza sativa (rice) Including corn, rice, wheat, sugar cane, bamboo, oats, rye, and barley, grasses feed the global population, not to mention use for building materials, alcohol production, and electricity generation. Used of Bamboo Bambusa (bamboo): These are used as a building material. Boa, Festuca etc. Food: All the cereals and millets belong to this family.
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